Collagen is fibrous in nature connecting and supporting the bodily tissues like cartilage, muscles, bone tendons, and skin. It helps in supporting the internal organs and is present in teeth even. About more than 25 kinds of collagen occur in the body naturally. This collagen is collected for use and is being taken from few other mammals that are dead (general livestock for commercial use). The process of extraction generally involves the procedure of cooking cartilaginous materials of animals like the skin, connective tissue, and bones. This helps in creating gelatin (this is a collagen form that has experienced partial hydrolysis, at a molecular level combined with water) and in the home can be witnessed often while cooking of bones of the meat into the soup. The collagen gelatin is purified for removing other materials from the animal matter like salts and fats.
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In few cases, collagen is collected from the remains of the humans as well (leftover or donated through surgical operations) for medical sake to be used as protein, as collagen that is human–extracted is usually not rejected by other human bodies. Collagen is produced from the fibroblasts, which are cells of the connective tissue creating and emitting elastin proteins, collagen fibers, and mucopolysaccharides into the tissues. Fibroblasts are generally spindle-shaped or star-shaped.
The outer layers of the cells of fibroblasts are designed for receiving and connecting to particular catalyst molecules and their role is to prompt the collagen production when the suitable arrangement of catalyst molecule is completed, this is called fibroblast growth factors, initially, they produce substances that are less-complex and is known as procollagen. As the aging process starts the collagen production process declines and the existing collagen begins to deteriorate.
Collagen is used as a food product like yogurts, gummy candy, and gelatin desserts. There are basically four major kinds of collagen and they are Types I, II, III, and IV. The body of a human being produces its own supply level of such substance. Damaged and dead cells of the skin are replenished continually via the regeneration of the cells. Collagen mixes with the natural protein of the body known as elastin. Bundles are formed when they cluster together, which are responsible to make the skin firm and elastic. Skin elasticity is lost when the collagen bundles are being lost.
To bind elastin with collagen the most important thing is hyaluronic acid, and this acid and various other important micronutrients offer the required condition for regeneration of the collagen. For getting the hydrolyzed collagen, it is extracted from the bones and skins of cattle, pigs, and fish. Once the bones are clean, it is being crushed and then soaked in acid for removing the calcium. For breaking the bonds of collagen, it is soaked in a Base, so that it is separated. From the collagen, the chemicals are removed finally and for using it is dried. Then, it is available in the form of collagen capsules, collagen powder, or bars.